Reading Hate
Hate Crime Research and Scholarship in Canada

Canadian Hate Crime Literature

LGBTQ Bibliography
c. Ellen Faulkner: Canadian Resources on Anti-Gay/Lesbian Violence
 Department of Sociology, Brock University Unpublished Document
 June 29, 2006

*Of the following, Smith 1993, Samis, 1995, New Brunswick Coalition of Human Rights Reform, 1991, and Kelner 1983 are the best Canadian sources of data drawn from grassroots community based studies. Findings from my research conducted in Toronto, Calgary, and New Brunswick are discussed in my unpublished manuscript.

Adam, Barry. 1995. The Rise of a Gay and Lesbian Movement, revised ed. New York: Twayne Publishers.

Banks, Christopher. May 2003. The Cost of Homophobia: Literature Review on the Human Impact of Homophobia in Canada. Community – University Institute for Social Research

Coutu, Michelle. 1994. Moving Toward Accessibility: An Interagency Forum Addressing Barriers to Services for Abused Lesbians. Toronto: The 519 Church Street Community Centre.

Faulkner, Ellen. Unpublished.  LGBTQ Bibliography. Canadian Resources on Anti-Gay/Lesbian Violence. Department of Sociology, Brock University. Available upon request.

Faulkner, Ellen. Unpublished manuscript. Living in the Shadows: Queer Bashing in Canada. Department of Sociology, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario.

Faulkner, E. 2004. “Researching Anti_Gay/Lesbian Violence In Canada: Methodological and Definitional Issues.”  International Journal of Comparative Criminology (IJCC). Affiliate Journal of the International Section, ACJS . De Sitter Publications. Willowdale, Ontario. Editors: Shivu Ishwaran and Livy Visano, Department of Sociology, York University 3(2):149_174.

Faulkner, E. 2002. “Comment: Hate Crime In Canada: An Overview of Issues and Data Sources.” (July 2001), By Derek Janhevich (Statistics Canada). International Journal of Comparative Criminology. 2(2): 239_261.

Faulkner, Ellen. 2001. “Empowering Victim Advocates: Organizing Against Anti_Gay/Lesbian Violence in Canada.” Critical Criminology: An International Journal. 10(2).

Faulkner, Ellen. 2001. Researching Evidence of Hate Propaganda: A Conceptual Report. (Ottawa: Department of Justice Working Document).

Faulkner, Ellen. 1998. "Woman_to_Woman Abuse: Analyzing Extant Accounts of Lesbian Battering." In Bonnycastle, K. D. and G. S. Rigakos eds., Unsettling Truths: Battered Women, Policy, Politics, and Contemporary Research in Canada. Vancouver: The Collective Press, 52_62.

Faulkner, Ellen. 1997. Anti_Gay/Lesbian Violence In Toronto: The Impact on Individuals and Communities. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada: Research and Statistics Division/Policy Sector. TR1997_5e. A Project of the 519 Church Street Community Centre Victim Assistance Programme, Toronto.

Faulkner, Ellen. 2001. Anti_Gay/Lesbian Violence in Calgary: The Impact on Individuals and Communities. Calgary Gay and Lesbian Police Liaison Committee. Calgary Police Services: Calgary, Alberta.

Faulkner, Ellen. 2004. Anti_Gay/Lesbian Violence in New Brunswick: The Impact on Individuals and Communities. Fredericton Pride Committee: Fredericton, New Brunswick.

Faulkner, E. 2001 “Empowering Victim Advocates: The Community Response to Anti_Gay/Lesbian Violence in Canada.” Critical Criminology: An International Journal, a special theme edition on Criminology, Empowerment and Social Justice. 10(2):123_135.

Faulkner, Ellen. Summer 1991. "Lesbian Abuse: The Social and Legal Realities." Queen's Law Journal. 16(2):261_286.

Fleming, Thomas.  1983. “Criminalizing a Marginal Community: The bawdy-house raids.” In Thomas Fleming and L.A. Visano, eds. Deviant Designations: Crime, Law and Deviance in Canada. Toronto: Butterworths, 37-60.

519 Church Street Community Centre. n.d. Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men. Understanding the Legal System. Toronto: The 519. (Pamphlet).

519 Church Street Community Centre. n.d. Stop Lesbian and Gay Bashing. Protect Yourself! Be Aware! Be Safe!. Toronto: The 519. (Pamphlet on information and resources).

Janhevich, Derek. 1999. Violence Committed by Strangers. The Juristat Reader. A Statistical Overview of the Canadian Justice System. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. 151_164.

(search web)Janhevich, Derek. 2001. Hate Crime in Canada: An Overview of Issues and Data Sources. Statistics Canada Integration and Analysis Program, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Ottawa: Minister of Industry.

Janhevich, Derek E. 1997. The Criminalization of Hate: A Social Constructionist Perspective. Unpublished M.A. Thesis. Ottawa: University of Ottawa, Department of Criminology.

Johnson, Katherine and Stephanie Castle 1997. Prisoner of Gender. Vancouver: Perceptions Press.

Kelner, Greg. 1983. Homophobic Assault: A Study of Anti_Gay Violence. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Gays for Equality.

Kinsman, Gary 1996. The Regulation of Desire: Homo and hetero sexualities. 2nd edition, revised. Montreal: Black Rose.

Kiefl, George and Jacquelyn Nelson. 1995. Survey of Hate_Motivated Activity. The Federal, Provincial, Territorial Working Group on Multicultural and Race Relations in the Justice System. Ottawa: Department of Justice, Canada.

Law Reform Commission of Canada. 1986. Hate Propaganda. [Working Paper 5]. Ottawa: Supply Services. (see recommendation 1 and see commentary p. 32 regarding the addition of sexual orientation).

Ottawa_Carleton Regional Police Bias Crime Unite and Liaison Committee for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Communities. 1995. Brief submitted to the House of Commons Standing Committee on the Justice and Legal Affairs respecting Bill C_41, an Act to Amend the Criminal Code (sentencing) and other Acts in consequence thereof. Ottawa.

Law Reform Commission of Canada. 2000. Hate Propaganda. Ottawa: Supply and Services. The original version of this Current Issue Review was published in January 1985; the paper has been regularly updated since that time.

Lee, Debbie. 2000. Safe City Project: Beyond hatred. Report on London queer youth prepared for HALO. July.

Lesbian and Gay History Group of Toronto. August 18, 1981. A History of the Relationship between the Gay Community and the Metropolitan Toronto Police. A brief presented to Arnold Bruner for his Study of Relations Between the Homosexual Community and the Police. Toronto, Ontario: Lesbian and Gay History Group of Toronto.

Lesbians Working to End Violence in Lesbian Relationships. 1997. Abuse In Lesbian Relationships Workshop Guidelines. Toronto, Ontario with funding from the Ontario Women’s Directorate.

Lunny, Allyson M. 2003 ““Provocation and ‘‘Homosexual’’ Advance: Masculinized Subjects as Threat, Masculinized Subjects Under Threat,”” Social and Legal Studies. 12.3: 311_333.

MacDougall, Bruce. 2000. Queer Judgments: Homosexuality, expression and the courts in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Maynard, Steven. 1996. "Through a Hole in the Lavatory Wall: Homosexual Subcultures, Police Surveillance, and the Dialectics of Discovery, Toronto, 1890_1930." Joy Parr and Mark Rosenfeld eds. Gender and History in Canada. Copp Clark.

Namaste, Viviane K. 2000.  Invisible Lives: The Erasure of Transexual and Transgendered People. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Namaste, Ki. July 1995. Access Denied: A Report on the Experiences of Transsexuals and Transgenderists with Health Care and Social Services in Ontario. Toronto: Project Affirmation.

Namaste, Ki. November 1993. Transgenders and Violence: An Exploration. A brief submitted to the Commission des droits de la personne du Quebec. Montreal.

Nelson, Jacquelyn and George Kiefl. 1995. Survey of Hate_Motivated Activity. (Technical Report TR1995_4e). Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada.

New Brunswick Coalition for Human Rights Reform. 1990. Discrimination and Violence Encountered by Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual New Brunswickers. Fredericton, N.B.: New Brunswick Coalition for Human Rights Reform.

New Brunswick Coalition for Human Rights Reform. January 1991. Human Rights for Gay New Brunswickers. A Brief to the Standing Committee on Law Amendments of the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick in Response to the Report Towards a World Family. Fredericton, New Brunswick: New Brunswick Coalition for Human Rights Reform.

Lehman, Mark. 1997. “At the End of the Rainbow.” (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). University of Toronto.

O’Brien, Carol-Anne. 1994. “The Social Organization of the Treatment of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Youth in Group Homes and Youth Shelters.” Canadian Review of Social Policy. No. 34, 37-57.

Ottawa Police Service Liaison Committee. 2002. Heard for the First Time. June. Ottawa Police Service.

Ottawa_Carleton Regional Police Bias Crime Unit and Liaison Committee for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Communities. 1995. Brief submitted to the House of Commons Standing Committee on the Justice and Legal Affairs respecting Bill C_41, an Act to Amend the Criminal Code (sentencing) and other Acts in consequence thereof. Ottawa.

Pepper, David and Carroll Holland. June 1994. Moving Toward a Distant Horizon. The Public Summary of the Final Report of the Action Plan Project funded by the Ottawa Police Services Board _ June 1993_March 1994. Ottawa: The Ottawa Police Bias Crime Unit.

Petersen, Cynthia. 1991. "A Queer Response to Bashing: Legislating Against Hate." Queen's Law Journal. 16(2):237_260.
Peterkin, Allan and Cathy Risdon. 2003. Caring for Lesbian and Gay People. Toronto: University of Toronto Press .

Ristock, Janice. 2002. No More Secrets: Violence in Lesbian Relationships. New York, London; Routledege.

Ristock, Janice L. 1997. “The Cultural Politics of Abuse in Lesbian Relationships: Challenges for Community Action.” Benokraitis, Nijole ed. Subtle Sexism. Current Practice and Prospects for Change. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Ristock, Janice L. 1994. “And Justice for All? ...The Social Context of Legal Responses to Abuse in Lesbian Relationships.” Canadian Journal of Women and the Law. 7(2):415_430.

Ristock, Janice L. 1991. “Beyond Ideologies: Understanding Abuse in Lesbian Relationships.” Canadian Women’s Studies. 12(1):74_79.

Ristock, Janice L. 1991. “Understanding Violence in Lesbian Relationships: An Examination of Misogyny and Homophobia.” Kirby, S. Daniels, Danya, McKenna, K. Pujol, M. Valiquette, M. eds. Women Changing Academe: The Proceedings of the 1990 Canadian Women’s Studies Association Conference. Winnipeg: Manitoba: Sororel Publishing, 113_121.

Ristock, Janice L., Balan, A. Chorney, R. 1995. Training and Education Project for Responding to Abuse in Lesbian Relationships. On Behalf of the Coalition of Lesbians on Support and Education and Klinic Community Health Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Roach, Kent. 1996. "Provocation, Self_Defence, Necessity, and Duress." Essentials of Canadian Law. Criminal Law. Concord, Ontario: Irwin Law, 177_178.

Roberts, Julian. 1995. Disproportionate Harm: Hate Crime in Canada, An Analysis of Recent Statistics. Ottawa: Department of Justice.

Roberts, Julian V. 1999. Legislative Responses to Hate_Motivated Crime. Draft Paper for the Domain Seminar on Social Issues. Ottawa: Department of Canadian Heritage.

Rosen, Phillip. January 24, 2000. “Hate Propaganda.” Parliamentary Research Branch (PRB) of the Library of Parliament. #85_6e. Online:

Ross, Jeffrey Ian. 1994. “Hate Crime in Canada: Growing Pains with New Legislation.” Mark S. Hamm ed., Hate Crime: International Perspectives on Causes and Control. Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson Publishing Co., 151_172.

Right To Privacy Committee. 1981. The Right To Privacy Committee's Brief to the City of Toronto Bruner Study Into Relations Between Metropolitan Toronto Police and Toronto's Homosexual Community. Toronto: The Right To Privacy Committee.

Samis, Stephen Michael. 1995. "An Injury to One is an Injury to All: Heterosexism, Homophobia, and Anti_Gay/Lesbian Violence in Greater Vancouver". Unpublished Thesis in the degree of Master of Arts in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia.

Sepejak, Diana. 1977. "The Willingness of Homosexuals to Report Criminal Victimization to the Police." M.A. Dissertation, Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto.

Service de police de la Communaute urbaine de Montreal (SPCUM). 1993. Memoire sur la discrimination et la violence envers les gais et les lesbiennes. Commission des Droits de la Personne du Quebec. (Document non_publie).

Smith, Carolyn Gibson. 1993. 'Proud But Cautious.' Homophobic Abuse and Discrimination in Nova Scotia. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Dalhousie University Nova Scotia Public Research Group.

Smith, George W. 1988. ““Policing the Gay Community: An inquiry into textually-mediated social relations.”” International Journal of the Sociology of Law. 16, 163-183.

Stermac, Lana and Peter Sheridan. 1993 “Anti-Gay/lesbian Violence: Treatment Issues.” Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 2 (1), Spring, 33-38.

Suriya, Senaka K. 1998. Combatting Hate? A Socio_Legal Discussion on the Criminalization of Hate in Canada. Ottawa, Ontario: Department of Law, Carleton University. (M.A. Thesis).

The Centre. n.d. A Community Centre Serving and Supporting Lesbian, Gay, Transgendered People and their Allies. Removing Barriers and Building Access.” Resource Manual. The Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Toronto Board of Education. 1992. Sexual Orientation: Focus on Homosexuality, Lesbianism and Homophobia. Toronto Board of Education: A Resource Guide for Teachers of Health Education in Secondary Schools. Toronto: Toronto Board of Education.

Tremblay, Pierre, Boucher, Eric, Ouimet, Marc, Biron, Louise. January 1998. “Discussion of Victimization: A Case Study: The ‘gay village’.”Canadian Journal of Criminology. 40(1):1_25.

Tremblay, Pierre, E. Boucher, M. Ouimet, et L. Biron. 1996. “Delinquance et marginalite: Etude de cas sur les risques victimisation dans le village gai de Montreal (1995_1996).” Cahiers de l’Ecole de Criminologie, Universite de Montreal (Cahier no. 11, 22 p.).

Warner, Tom (2002) Never Going Back: A history of queer activism in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Women Hurting Women Resource Manual. 2000. Calgary, Alberta: The Women Hurting Women Steering Committee and the Calgary Foundation.

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