Reading Hate
Hate Crime Research and Scholarship in Canada

Canadian Hate Crime Literature

Canadian Hate Crime Literature

Organization Reports

Alphabetically by organization name



African Canadian Community Coalition on Racial Profiling. Racial profiling fact sheet series. Retrieved on February 22, 2007 from the World Wide Web:

The topics covered in this fact sheet series on racial profiling include (1) police racial profiling, (2) anti-racist auditing and review, (3) data collection, (4) accountability through civilian complaints, (5) local dialogue with police, (6) building community networks, (7) public and political accountability, (8) community education and training, (9) human services programs, and (10) Canadian court rulings and tribunal decisions. The first fact sheet, dealing with the issue of racial profiling among the police, offers a definition of racial profiling as “any action undertaken for reasons of safety, security or public protection that relies on stereotypes rather than on reasonable suspicion, to single and individual for greater scrutiny or different treatment.” Evidence of racial profiling in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom is outlined, such as the higher rate at which Blacks are subject to police stops and searches. In the second fact sheet, the benefits of anti-racist auditing in police organizations, including the encouragement of police self-inspection, the identification of best practices, the enrichment of police organizations, the encouragement of individual accountability, ensuring consistency in policing, and enabling the efficient deployment of resources, are discussed. Failing to audit is said to result in a loss of perspective in officers on how their practices impact the communities they serve. The third fact sheet deals with the importance of collecting data on racial profiling, specifically that this information will move the discussion of racial profiling from accusations to a rational dialogue about appropriate enforcement strategies and will help communities determine the scope and magnitude of the problem. Challenges to data collection, including concern among police organizations that recording data will inhibit their work, uncertainty around statistical benchmarks, the possibility of police under-reporting, and police resistance to data collection, are noted. The fourth fact sheet focuses on accountability through civilian complaints. This fact sheet notes that in recent years, racial minority communities in Canada have advocated for arms-length complaint systems that do not afford police officers the opportunity to investigate race-based civilian complaints against their peers as civilians often feel intimidated when they must file a complaint about the behaviour of the police in the station these officers are employed. In the fifth fact sheet, local dialogue between the police and the community is identified as vital to a long-term solution to the problem of racial profiling and the distrust it generates. The sixth fact sheet concerns the development of community networks. Three networks that promote police-community relationships are identified: (1) crisis networks, (2) social networks, and (3) intra-community networks. Fact sheet seven deals with public and political accountability. Four level of police accountability, including individual, supervisory, public, and legislative, are described. In the eight fact sheet, police training in serving diverse populations and two-way education between police and the community are recommended. The benefits of community education and training are said to be increased community cooperation with the police, community ownership for maintaining local order, support for legislative and policy change, and reduced complaints against and more positive attitudes towards police. Human services programs is the subject matter of fact sheet nine. It is noted that racial profiling can affect the mental health and well-being of racial minority Canadians, particularly youth. Racial profiling can result in feelings of hopelessness, fear of police, low self-esteem, insecurity in the home, feelings of being targeted and restricted, loss of self-respect, low value for the role of policing, police hatred, and frustration. In the final fact sheet, Canadian court rulings and tribunal decisions relative to racial profiling are summarized.

Amnesty International. (2004). Stolen sisters: Discrimination and violence against indigenous women in Canada – A summary of Amnesty International’s concerns.

This document summarizes a report by Amnesty International entitled Stolen Sisters: A human rights response to discrimination and violence against Indigenous women in Canada. The report begins with a review of various Canadian cases that highlight a pattern of violent crimes committed against women, with an emphasis on the disproportionate representation of Indigenous women as victims of these crimes. The report does not directly tackle hate crime, but does make reference to sources such as the Manitoba Justice Inquiry, which characterize acts of violence against Indigenous women as racist and sexist. Additionally, the report comments on other realities that contribute to the vulnerabilities of Indigenous women, such as homelessness and prostitution. An important section of this summary details Canada’s history of mistreatment of Indigenous communities. With reference to past policies that took away Indigenous women’s status as Indigenous people and that forced Indigenous children to be educated in off-reserve residential schools where their culture was denounced, this history suggests that a legacy of mistreatment against Indigenous people exists and that this legacy has set a foundation for existing hatred and intolerance expressed against members of the Indigenous community. In discussing all of these issues, the focus is not so much on the type of crimes that Indigenous women are subjected to but rather on their vulnerabilities to victimization and the failure of police officials to adequately and responsibly address this. Thus, the report concludes by making twelve recommendations for action by Canadian officials. Among other things, these recommendations include implementing effective protocols for action on missing person cases, funding culturally appropriate services, creating civilian oversight bodies to investigate the actions of police, recruiting Indigenous police officers, funding national research on violence against women, consulting Indigenous women in the formulation and implementation of policies that affect them, and ratifying international human rights instruments.

Amnesty International Canada. (2002). Without discrimination: The fundamental right of all Canadians to human rights protection. 

In this report Amnesty International identifies several issues of concern pertaining to racial discrimination in Canada.  The report focuses on four of the groups most affected by racial discrimination, including the following: (1) Aboriginal peoples; (2) refugees; (3) migrant workers; and (4) communities which experience hate crimes in Canada. Of particular importance for the purpose of the present project is the criticisms made against Canada’s response to hate crime. Specifically, Amnesty International identifies problems with Criminal Code defenses used for hate crime, the failure to recognize holocaust denial as a hate crime, the prosecution of hate criminals, the capacity to prosecute, and the strength of human rights legislation. For each of these issues, Amnesty International offers corresponding recommendations as to how these issues can be resolved. Among other things, these recommendations include making amendments to the Criminal Code by either removing certain hate crimes provisions or adding new ones; expanding the jurisdiction for the prosecution of offences of incitement to genocide and hatred; creating specialized police units to investigate and prosecute hate crimes; and ensuring uniformity amongst provincial human rights laws. Overall, this report presents Amnesty International’s position against racial discrimination, its criticisms against Canada’s inability to meaningfully combat racial discrimination, and its recommendations for achieving progress and social justice.

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B’Nai Brith. (1996). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith

The 1996 Audit is a compilation of the quantitative statistical information gathered in the throughout the year as well as a qualitative analysis of legal cases, anti-Semitic events which took place in Canadian schools, local communities, and on the internet, as well as the achievements of B’Nai Brith and the feats that still need to be accomplished. 1996 saw a 26.3% decrease in the number of anti-Semitic incidents reported to B’Nai Brith. Incidents involving vandalism remained consistent, but the number of incidents involving harassment decreased substantially. Even so, there were several serious hate crimes committed throughout the year. For example, in April a malfunctioning bomb delivered to the Jewish National Fund office injured one person. The 1996 Audit also contains a number of notable developments which distinguish it from previous years. Bill C-41 was enacted into law in September 1996. This law recognizes the increased impact of crime directed at minority communities, thus requiring sentence enhancement for perpetrators of hate-motivated crimes. Several prominent court cases also took place in 1996. Alberta teacher Jim Keegstra was convicted of promoting Holocaust denial and conspiracy theories in his classroom and subsequently, the Supreme Court of Canada upheld his conviction. Famous Canadian Jewish hate propagandist Ernst Zundel had charges for defamatory libel and conspiracy to promote hatred against Jews withdrawn. Inter-ethnic relations in Quebec were strained throughout 1996, as Quebec voted in the separatism referendum.  Following the narrow vote not to separate, prominent French separatists blamed the ethnic vote, referring specifically to the Jewish, Italian, and Greek communities. The Audit reports some positive developments, for example no group since the Heritage Front has been able to rebuild the far-right movement. Some concerns B’Nai Brith raises are issues relating to the growth and expansion hate on the internet as well as recruitment of young people in the school yard. The Audit closes which a section on community partnerships which are working in collaboration to overcome anti-Semitism all over Canada. 
B’Nai Brith. (1997). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith.

The 1997 Audit includes many of the features of its predecessors such as a general overview of hate in Canada and its major urban centres, descriptions of some of the major anti-Semitic events of the year, and initiatives undertaken by B’Nai Brith and their partners to combat hate. In 1997, there were 212 anti-Semitic incidents recorded by B’Nai Brith, representing a 13% decrease from the previous year. B’Nai Brith attributes this decrease to a decline in organized hate group activity, a crackdown by the police, and ongoing community vigilance and education. As in past years, Toronto accounted for the largest number and percentage of anti-Semitic hate crimes in Canada. Other large cities, such as Montreal and Ottawa witnessed a decrease in the number of incidents. Nazi sympathizers and hate mongers were out in full force in 1997, many running for positions in public office. Convicted hate monger Don Andrews ran for Toronto Mayor, while Marc Lemire, webmaster for several anti-Semitic organizations and Paul Fromm, neo-Nazi publisher ran for school trustee positions in Toronto and Peel. Although Andrews, Lemire, and Fromm did not win the positions they ran for, they seemed to garner a solid base of support. A number of positive developments took place over the course of the year. Bill C-41 (enacted in 1996) encouraged Hate Crime Units and Crown Attorneys to take strong action by utilizing the new hate law. The Canadian Human Rights Commission launched educational initiatives in order to address hate on the internet. Related to this initiative, B’Nai Brith held an International Symposium on Hate on the Internet. Furthermore, Canadian Heritage, the Ministries of Justice, and the Solicitor General convened a national roundtable to discuss issues of concern and strategies to counter hate. Also, the Canadian Race Relations Foundation was launched this year. Working towards its vision of eliminating anti-Semitism, B’Nai Brith launched two public education campaigns to promote awareness of anti-Semitism, racism, and hate and the importance of reporting incidents. B’Nai Brith also held a number of legal/legislative initiatives including the International Symposium on Hate on the Internet. Showing its support for intercultural dialogue, B’Nai Brith held a National Unity Symposium which brought together members from across the country to discuss issues, fears, and hopes relating to national unity and the future of Canada.

B’Nai Brith. (1998). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith
The 1998 Audit is a compilation of the quantitative statistical information gathered in the previous year as well as a qualitative analysis of the specific events and prominent cases of anti-Semitism and hate in schools, on the internet, and in the media. The regular features of the Audit are included; definitions of the crimes that constitute anti-Semitism or hate, methods of data collection, the current anti-Semitic climate in Canada, as well as prominent cases and events that took place throughout the year. In 1996, there were 240 anti-Semitic incidents reported to B’Nai Brith. As in the preceding years, Toronto had the highest number of incidents and accounted for almost half of the entire Canadian total. Ottawa and its surrounding areas also experienced an increase in reported hate crimes, resulting in an overall increase for the province of Ontario, where most other provinces experiences a decrease. In addition to the raw numbers, the Audit also provides numerous examples of some of the specific incidents reported to B’Nai Brith. For example, in St Catharines, 43 headstones next to a Jewish Synagogue were vandalized, while a school in Ottawa was set on fire, resulting in $75,000 of damage. The activities of prominent hate groups and individuals are also addressed, most notably the numerous attempts of the Nationalist Party to create a formally recognized European Heritage day/week as a guise for an anti-Semitic symposium. There were also several missionaries and messianic churches throughout Canada which posed as synagogues in order to encourage those of the Jewish faith to convert to Christianity. Hate on the internet continues to be a growing problem, but B’Nai Brith has formed partnerships with many Internet Service Providers to monitor the content of the websites that they host. The actions of B’Nai Brith and other Jewish organizations have stifled the work of anti-Semitic organizations and individuals. The Audit also covers the initiatives undertaken by B’Nai Brith in the last year.   

B’Nai Brith. (1999). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith.
The 1999 Audit includes all of the regular features of the publication: definitions and data collection, a summary of the data collected with reference to regional climates and trends, anti-Semitism in schools, in the media, and on the internet, as well as B’Nai Brith’s continuing struggle to combat hate. Departing from the previous documents, the 1999 Audit is the first to express concern about anti-Semitism in what it terms the “global world.” Throughout the year, there were several major hate crimes committed outside of Canada, but the ripple effect allows their impact to travel across borders. 1999 marked a year of high levels of systemic discrimination and bias, as the number of complaints received in reference to workplace and institutional policies/practices increased markedly. There was also an 11% increase in the total number of incidents reported. Incidents involving harassment remained stable, but incidents involving vandalism rose close to 50% from the previous year’s total. The Audit details the specific fluctuations of major cities and regions in Canada, making specific mention of key incidents. Once such incident took place in Winnipeg, where over 200 headstones were toppled in a Jewish cemetery causing $100,000 in damage. The document also addresses the continued but weakening presence of extreme right networks throughout the country. The internet continued to play an important role in these networks’ recruiting efforts as there seemed to be an increased presence of white-supremacist websites designed to recruit women and youth. Relevant to the upcoming millennium, the Christian belief of the Second Coming of Christ influenced an increase in messianic organizations posing as synagogues. These churches believe that Christ’s return is dependent on the conversion of Jews of Christianity and thus, were out in full force this year. The document closes by reviewing B’Nai Brith efforts in 1999 to combat hate through education, training, and research, maintaining a close watch on the media, and continuing to building partnerships with other human rights organizations. 

B’Nai Brith. (2000). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith.
The 2000 Audit departs from its predecessors in content and organization. After a brief introduction and summary of the data, the Audit goes on to describe the international influence of anti-Semitic hate in Canada. International terrorist groups and the ongoing crisis in the Middle East resulted in a wave of anti-Semitic incidents that transcend Jewish communities throughout Canada. Furthermore, Islamic extremist groups linked to terrorists and anti-Israel activity has been alleged to be using Canada as a base to penetrate the United States. For example, the report described the manhunt for Algerian terrorist in Canada in early 2000 after a believed Al-Qaeda agent was found transporting bombs to the United States through British Columbia. Incidents such as these are believed to fuel the sharp increase in the number of violent incidents in 2000. Although there was only a 5% increase in the number of incidents overall, they were more likely to include fire-bombings, violent assaults, and death threats. Anti-Semitism was especially prominent in Montreal this year, where the number of incidents increased from 37 in 1999 to 71 in 2000. Bringing forth the positive developments of the year 2000, B’Nai Brith describes a recent decrease in the number and influence of online white supremacist and hate groups. The Audit provides proof of this by including HateWatch’s termination letter which claims hate groups’ failed attempts to gain wide-spread acceptance and support. The internet also remains a valuable tool for community activists, police, and government agencies to track hate group activity in Canada. The document closes with a brief overview of the initiatives undertaken by B’Nai Brith and its supporters in the past year.

B’Nai Brith. (2001). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith.
The 2001 Audit of anti-Semitic incidents departs from previous Audits in light of the September 11 attacks in the United States. B’Nai Brith recognizes that the re-emergence of hate against identifiable groups calls for different measures to be used when analyzing anti-Semitic incidents. B’Nai Brith suggests that anti-Semitism can no longer be examined exclusively in the local vicinity but also in light of their contextual background including connections to incidents in other regions. This Audit takes a different approach to analyzing the events of the past year by dividing the report into six sections with contributions from B’Nai Brith and other prominent names in the anti-Semitism realm. Each section contains a report that addresses issues relevant to anti-Semitism in 2001. The first section contains a report on the results of a survey compiled by Dr. Conrad Winn about attitudinal changes towards minorities in Canada over the past 15 years. This section provides the context of the qualitative analysis of incidents in the following section. Section two reviews the anti-Semitic incidents of the past year as recorded by B’Nai Brith. This section is similar to previous reports in that it reports the number of anti-Semitic incidents throughout Canada, and provides specific examples of some of the incidents that took place throughout the year. In section three, Ken McVay of the Nizkor website contributes a paper which discusses the growing use of the internet to distribute hate propaganda and recruit to the white supremacist cause. Legal Counsel for B’Nai Brith examines legal cases and their impact in section four. Section five is a thesis paper by Professor Stephen Schienberg of the University of Concordia which defines the “new anti-Semitism” that has developed in Europe. The final section of the Audit focuses on the future. Human rights lawyer David Matas examines the impact of anti-Semitism and possible solutions to the growing problem. 

B’Nai Brith. (2002). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith.
The 2002 Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents is divided into five main sections: (1) introduction, (2) findings of the Audit, (3) the victims, (4) the context, and (5) behind the scenes. The Audit begins by recognizing its significance during a time of tension, uncertainty, anti-Semitism, and hatred throughout the world. The Audit reports that Canada experienced a 60% increase in the number of reported anti-Semitic incidents to a record 459 incidents. There was an increase in the number of anti-Semitic incidents in all regions, although these increases were sometimes very small in the West and the Maritimes. B’Nai Brith also opted to add a third categorization for its incidents. Previously, violence crimes were included in the definition of harassment, but in 2002, violence became a sufficiently common occurrence to justify its own category in addition to harassment and vandalism. Warranting the violence classification was the murder of a Toronto Jewish man who was stabbed to death by an unknown man making anti-Semitic comments. In terms of the context of this year’s Audit, the events in the Middle East seemed to affect anti-Semitism in Canada. B’Nai Brith uses the numerous anti-racism conferences and symposiums which neglected to address anti-Semitism. They also note the high number of incidents which took place in April and May (154) which corresponded with Israel’s operation “Defensive Shield” following the Passover Seder terrorist bombing in Netyanya. Regarding victims, B’Nai Brith reports that only approximately 10% of victimizations are reported. They outline several reasons for this underreporting including internalization of their victimization, fear, and a belief that the incident was too trivial to be reported. In an effort to increase reporting and reduce hatred, B’Nai Brith reports that Police forces across Canada have demonstrated sensitivity to the Jewish community and closely monitored hate in their regions. Anti-Semitism remained visible in its traditional right-wing roots but also made a presence on the left end of the spectrum, where many questioned the legitimacy of Jewish nationalism, and blamed the Arab/Israeli conflict on the Jews. The report concludes with addressing hate on the internet, noting that 12% of the reported incidents in 2002 were over the internet or e-mail. In the report’s appendices, B’Nai Brith provides a comparative list of definitions used by their organization and police forces across the country.

B’Nai Brith. (2003). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith.
Jewish communities worldwide continued to experience increases in hate crime and terror attacks in 2003. Since the new millennium, the theme of the Audits seems to be the ripple effects of global anti-Semitism and hate. B’Nai Brith reports heightened concerns among Canadian Jews as the climate in Europe and the Middle East continues to intensify. In 2003, there were 584 incidents reported in Canada, an almost 30% increase from 2002. The severity of the incidents was also a concern, as 33% of the cases included in the Audit reported to police for criminal investigation. Almost half of the incidents reported in 2003 occurred between January and March coinciding with anticipation of the war in Iraq. The Audit maintains its concern for the victims of anti-Semitism, citing research with suggests victims of hate crime undergo higher levels of psychological distress than victims of other crimes. This distress, coupled with a growing desensitization to anti-Semitism, has resulted in low reporting rates. For the first time, the 2003 Audit addresses the methodology of the reporting process, describing an intake process which documents, verifies, and corroborates incidents before including them in the Audit. B’Nai Brith expresses concerns of a convergence between left and right wing opponents who are increasingly using anti-Jewish rhetoric. There is also concern about anti-Semitism on university and college campuses as there has been an increase in anti-Semitic graffiti, hate literature, physical assaults, and terror-legitimizing rallies. The Audit concludes with a section on enhancing protections. It praises the hate crime provisions available in Canada by criticizes their lax application. The legal cases of the year are also briefly reviewed, included the case of Brad Love who was sentenced to 18 months in jail and three years probation for promoting hatred and mailing obscene material. The Audit concludes by citing the positive steps which have been taken by the City of Toronto when they adopted the Resolution Condemning Anti-Semitism, which is included in Appendix A. B’Nai Brith also offers a number of recommendations to combat anti-Semitism including a uniform definition of hate crime and the creation of hate crime unity in all police jurisdictions.

B’Nai Brith. (2004). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith.
For the fourth year running, the Audit has reported a large increase in the number of incidents reported to their agency. In 2004, 857 incidents were recorded by B’Nai Brith. This represents a 47% increase from 2003 and a three-fold increase since the year 2000. Of these incidents 53% were classified as harassment, 43% as vandalism, and 4% as violence. Incidents throughout the year were reported in a number of settings including synagogues, the internet, on university/college campuses, in the workplace, and in public places. Most of the incidents took place in the Greater Toronto and Montreal Areas. A large percentage of the incidents were recorded in March and April, aligning with a Hamas suicide terror bombing and Israel’s subsequent assassination of the Hamas spiritual leader. This gives credence to B’Nai Brith’s ongoing claim of the international ripple effect of anti-Semitism. B’Nai Brith corroborates its findings by comparing them to other studies both in Canada and throughout the world. Toronto and York Region Police Forces both noted an increase in hate crimes in their districts this year. The Federal Bureau of Investigation in the United States released an Annual Report on Hate Crime Statistics, where almost 70% of hate crimes based on religion were directed towards those of the Jewish faith. Studies in Europe, Britain, and Australia also substantiate the findings of the 2004 Audit. Organized anti-Semitic activity in Canada was only responsible for a small number of this year’s incidents. However, there was activity around infamous Holocaust Denier Ernst Zundel pertaining to the security warning issued against him. The warning was upheld and he was soon deported to Germany which sparked a number of protests in both Canada and the United States. In order to protect the victim of anti-Semitism, B’Nai Brith recommends the police forces of Canada unite to create a national definition of hate crime and to establish a system for gathering statistics. Currently, many of the incidents reported to B’Nai Brith are not considered to be hate crimes. For instance, those exposed to continual anti-Semitic harassment have no legal recourse. Despite this, there were several anti-Semitic cases which went before the courts (including the Supreme Court of Canada) which the Audit briefly reviews. The Audit also addresses hate on the internet, which continues to present challenges to those who combat the spread of hatred.

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Canadian Race Relations Foundation. Acknowledging racism. Retrieved on March 1, 2007 from the World Wide Web:

This brief article begins with a discussion of the importance of acknowledging the existence of racism of Canada. The author states that, although many Canadians recognize racism as a problem of international scope and import, and are committed to overcoming racism internationally, there is a refusal to recognize racism as an issue in Canada, in present as well as historical terms. This denial is made possible by the characterization of the issue of racism according to very specific events. For example, the images of racism that readily come to one’s mind include slavery in the United States, the apartheid in South Africa or the Holocaust. What many people fail to acknowledge are the daily acts of racism that allow these events to occur. The article continues with a discussion of common definitions of racism, such as that provided by the Oxford Dictionary: “prejudice based on race.” The author states that such simple definitions are problematic because they include the invalid belief that a scientifically determined category of race exists. Thus, the social concept of race perpetuates divisions among people and continues to be a root cause of inequality. From this, it is concluded that racism requires a more complex definition, which the author provides by dividing racism into three separate forms including (1) individual racism, (2) systemic racism and (3) cultural racism.

Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2000). “Facing hate in Canada”.  Retrieved from the World Wide Web:

This article provides insight into the history of hatred in Canada. The authors assert that racism and bigotry are pervasive elements of contemporary Canadian society and argue that the foundation for meaningful social change lies in an understanding of the root sources of hatred. Accordingly, the authors detail exclusionary legislation and practices dating back to 1884, and their adverse impacts on Aboriginals, Chinese, Japanese, Jewish people, and African Canadians among other social groups. This history is linked to contemporary forms of hatred as espoused in the white supremacist movement and expressed by anti-hate organizations such as Neo-Nazis, Christian Identity believers, Holocaust Deniers, and Racist Skinheads. The authors conclude with five central recommendations for responding to bigotry, which include (1) increasing public awareness of hate groups; (2) supporting hate crime victims; (3) reporting hate activity; (4) organizing against racist money-making; and (5) rejecting racist politics. These suggestions are grounded in the authors’ belief that all forms of discrimination and hate must be challenged on an ongoing basis, with “no effort [being] too small”. 

Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2000). “From racism to redress: The Japanese Canadian experience”.  Retrieved from the World Wide Web:

This article describes a history of hatred in Canada against Japanese Canadians. The authors comment on how Asian immigration to Canada during the early 1900s was accompanied by strong anti-Asian sentiments and a moral panic over the “Yellow Peril”. The authors pay particular attention to the impact of the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the Canadian government’s reaction to the event by enacting the War Measures Act. This act allowed the government to suspend the rights of Japanese Canadians and provided legal justification for the government to execute a mass evacuation of Japanese Canadians, which resulted in 22,000 individuals being sent to road camps, internment campus and prisoner of war camps. The authors note that even after the war the ended, the “enemy alien” status of Japanese Canadians had not been removed as they were given an ultimatum to either re-settle in places east of the Rocky Mountains or to leave Canada altogether and return to Japan. In response to these injustices, the authors acknowledge the prominent role of the Japanese Canadian Committee for Democracy (JCCD), which later became the National Association of Japanese Canadians (NAJC), in spearheading a movement for redress and compensation. This movement culminated in the Japanese Canadian Redress Agreement in 1988 along with the creation of the Canadian Race Relation Foundation in 1997. While celebrating these achievements, the authors caution that the existing Emergencies Act is insufficient to prevent a repetition of history since the “peace, order, and good government” clause of the Constitution and the notwithstanding clause (s.33) of the Charter allow the government to override fundamental rights.  This article also provides a timeline of anti-Japanese legislation in Canada since 1897 as well as a list of key facts and figures that compare the treatment of Japanese in Canada to those in the United States.

Canadian Race Relations Foundation. Racism in our schools: What to know about it, how to fight it. Retrieved on March 1, 2007 from the World Wide Web:

This article begins with a discussion of the demographic transformation of Canadian schools over the past few decades which has resulted in a significant racial minority and Aboriginal student population. Of concern is the existence of racism as a barrier to equal access to educational achievement for these racial minority and Aboriginal students. The author notes that although Canada is regarded throughout the world as a leader in educational standards and resources, development in the areas of inclusiveness and empowerment of all children is lacking. The article continues with a discussion of racism as an intrinsic part of Canada’s history. Institutionalized racism is said to affect all of society’s public spheres, including the educational sphere. The author identifies the colonialist treatment of Aboriginal peoples as the most prevalent example of racism within the Canadian school system and provides a historical account of residential schools. Such schools served as a means to alienate Aboriginal children from their families, language and culture, and assimilate them into “civilized” Christians. The socio-economic ramifications of residential schools are still apparent to this day. The article notes that much progress has been made since the abolishment of residential school, yet provincial schools still do not respond to the intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical needs of Aboriginal children. The author identifies some of the barriers that Aboriginal and racial minority children face in school, including negative differential treatment, stereotyping, bias in testing and evaluation, streaming, a mono-cultural curriculum, unfair and unusual discipline, and the self-fulfilling prophecy of low expectations. It is noted that although there have been steps in Education Ministries towards the development of anti-racist policies, their implementation is slow and inconsistent. Further, cuts to educational funding are having an increased negative impact on racial minority and Aboriginal children as Anti-racism and ethno-cultural equity departments, in addition to English and/or French as a Second Language courses, often disappear.

Canadian Race Relations Foundation. Racism in the justice system. Retrieved on March 8, 2007 from the World Wide Web:

In this article, racism is the justice system is identified as one of the most obvious examples of institutional racism in Canadian society. The author notes that racism is operational in all aspects of the justice system and points to studies that have proven this point. For example, statistical research has consistently found that racial minorities are overrepresented in all stages of the Canadian criminal justice system, First Nations Peoples being the most overrepresented group. The author cautions that drawing conclusions from statistics alone, without consideration of the results of racism and the processes that lead to this reality, can perpetuate stereotypes and misconceptions about First Nations Peoples. In order to gain a complete understanding of the over-representation of First Nations Peoples in the criminal justice system, it is suggested that racism be examined from three angles: (1) personal racism, (2) systemic racism and (3) ideological racism. In addition, the author states that it is necessary to analyze how these three categories of racism operate in each of the criminal justice system’s main processes: policing, judiciary, and the penal system. The article continues with a presentation of statistics on the over-representation of First Native Peoples in the three steams of policing, courts and corrections. Systemic barriers, including a lack of First Nations police officers, judges and lawyers, are identified as contributing to this phenomenon. In terms of ideological racism, it is noted that the traditional justice systems that most First Nations Peoples subscribe to conflict with the adversarial nature of the Canadian justice system. This, in collaboration with language barriers, cultural differences and socioeconomic problems, results in the alienation of First Nations Peoples from the criminal justice system and reduces their likelihood of receiving a fair trial. The author states that problems of personal, systemic and ideological racism continue in the correctional stream. Research indicating that First Nations Peoples are treated hasher than other inmates, receive parole less, and are prevented from continuing their ceremonial and spiritual practices, is utilized to prove this point. 

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DeSantis, H. (1998). Combating hate on the internet. Hull, Quebec: International
Comparative Research Group.

Heather DeSantis compares existing and emerging international responses to hate crime on the Internet as well as innovative approaches taken to combat it.  The report, Combating Hate on the Internet, begins with a focus on the difficulties in regulating the Internet.  The Internet is anonymous, which allows those involved in hate offences to conceal themselves behind their words. Although this is not difficult to trace, the complexity arises in laying charges due to jurisdictional boundaries (nationally and internationally).  One major issue in Canada, as well as many other countries, is the subject of freedom of speech, expression, and access to information.  Though policy makers have agreed that some kind of regulation is needed, jurisdictional boundaries become complicated. Although all states in the study criminalize hate activities, some place more of an emphasis on the protection of individual freedoms (mainly the United States).  Next, DeSantis compares case studies of Australia, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States.  Many of the countries focus on legislation, whether it is through previous legislation such as Australia’s Racial Discrimination Act of 1975, or new legislation such as the Communications Decency Act (CDC) in the United States.  The report also discusses the number of multilateral organizations which have emerged.  These organizations focus on various issues such as liability, jurisdiction, and the promotion of self-regulated systems.  The report concludes by explaining that further research is needed in Canada in the area of non-legislative regulation which encourages responsible Internet Service Provider (ISP) conduct as well as user awareness.  It is premature to attempt to control the Internet, as it is still a relatively new technological advancement and is growing at a rapid speed.  It is recommended that the best course of action would be a multifaceted approach to combat hate crime as well as a reinterpretation of existing laws.   This article is especially useful for those focusing on international hate crime strategies.  There is a vast amount of information focusing on international strategies to combat hate crime on the Internet. 

Dutton, A., Mock, K., & Ellbogen, E. (2001). Combating hate on the internet: Issue position paper. Canadian Secretariat World Conference Against Racism Advisory Committee.

This paper, prepared by the Advisory Committee to the Secretary of State, offers recommendations for combating hate on the Internet through both international law and Canadian domestic policy and law. Recommendations are followed by a discussion of the issues arising from the recommendations, specifically the complaints of the Internet industry and Canadian civil libertarians that attempting to prevent hate on the Internet: (1) is an unwarranted violation of the constitutional right to free speech and privacy; (2) is a slippery slope that will lead to too much government interference on the Internet; (3) will impose an undue economic burden on ISPs and access providers to monitor content; (4) will lead to Internet companies and developers leaving Canada for other countries that do not criminalize hate propaganda; and (5) is a waste of time since laws and regulations are virtually unenforceable because of the nature of the Internet itself. The authors offer three strategies for implementing the recommendations, including (1) do nothing; (2) support the self-regulation of the Internet by the industry itself; and (3) use all the tools that are available to combat and stop hate on the Internet, including enforcing international and domestic law where applicable, creating new laws or amending laws where required, advancing education and self-regulation of the Internet by the industry working with Government and NGOs, and supporting the strong and vigorous activities of institutions within civil society in their own right to combat and prevent hate on the Internet. The paper concludes with the adoption of the third strategy for combating hate on the Internet and provides an action plan for this endeavor.

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Farber, B. M. (ed.). (1997, January). From marches to modems: A report on organized
hate in metro Toronto. Ontario. Canadian Jewish Congress, Ontario Region

This report addresses hate crime in the Toronto region and was created to provide information to the Government, law enforcement, citizens, and educators so they are able to better understand the history of hate in the city.  It also offers a way to deal with hatred in the community. Section one discusses the history of hate crime from 1933-1989.  It explores the amount of hate that has existed in Canada from the fascist activity in the 1920’s to the radical right and extremist views expressed in the 1970s.  The second section describes the main leaders of hate in Canada; Wolfgang Droege, Paul Fromm, Ernst Zundel, George Burdi, and Marc Lemire.  The next section is focused on what the hate organizers use to attempt to spread their message.  These tools usually are new recruits as well as communications devices (flyers, Internet, and demonstrations).  Section four contains two case studies on hate motivated crimes.  One case is about Jason Hoolans, a neo-Nazi, who viciously beat a man from Sri Lanka to the point of brain damage.  The other case was about the conviction of Zvonimir Lelas and Sharon M. who spray painted Nazi signage on a Synagogue, school sign, and car near Sharon M.’s home.  The fifth section of the report discusses the law, and what is more important in regards to hate offenses.  The next section discusses the conclusion and recommendations.  Some recommendations include improved education, the proper enforcement of the law, and cooperation between organizations to combat hate on the Internet.  The final section contains the appendixes for many acts and legislation in Canada. 

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Hate Crime Unit: Detective Services Intelligence Support. (1998). 1998 Annual hate/bias crime statistical report. Toronto: Toronto Police Service.

The Toronto Police Service Hate Crime Unit released a report in 1998 pertaining to statistics and information on the investigation of hate motivated offences, as well as the prosecution of those who commit hate motivated crimes in Toronto.  The report provides numerous statistics on patterns, descriptions provided by victims, location of offences, hate crime occurrences, charges, yearly and trend comparisons, as well as education and training that had been completed within the year.  It states that in 1998 there were 228 hate bias criminal offences which were reported to The Toronto Police Service.  The highest reported offences were consistent with the previous years; assaults were the highest followed by mischief, threats, and hate propaganda occurrences.  Most of the attacks were random attacks and generally were committed by suspects unknown to the victim and had occurred in a public area.  It is important to note that compared to 1997, there was a 22% increase in reported hate crime.  This was explained primarily because of the public becoming more aware as well as comfortable with reporting hate crime to the police, and a change in the Police Service’s definition of a hate crime.  In regards to offenders, the motivation for older offenders was often a spontaneous action or the suspects own personal bias.  When young offenders where involved, their motivation was based on ethnic polarization, territorial issues, and peer acceptance.  The report concludes with an explanation of the types of education and training that occurred in regards to hate crime in 1998.  A small sample of what the Toronto Police have accomplished includes training sessions conducted for 400 provincial Crown attorneys, support provided for front line officers through providing intelligence on hate crimes as well as specific hate groups, and community outreach with local agencies, assisting them in developing strategies for outreach within the community. 

Hate Crime Unit: Detective Services Intelligence Support. (1999). 1999 Annual hate/bias crime statistical report. Toronto: Toronto Police Service.

The 1999 report created by the Toronto Police Service Hate Crime Unit states that there was a 28% increase in hate bias criminal offences reported to the Hate Crime Unit.  There were 292 offences reported in 1999 compared to 228 in 1998.  The Toronto Transit Commission also had a marked increase of 15 occurrences in 1998 to 36 hate crime reports in 1999.  The Hate Crime Unit believes that the increase in awareness of hate crimes by the community and police directly affected the increase in reported hate crime offences in 1999.  Mischief offences preceded assault offences as the most frequent hate bias occurrences in 1999 followed by willful promotion of hatred, threats, and criminal harassment.  As in previous years, most suspects were unknown to the victim and most offences occurred in public places.  The most targeted group of hate motivated offences was the black community, this is followed by the target of multi-bias (the target is two or more groups), sexual orientation, and religion.  Hate motivated crimes that were against visible minorities continued to be the most frequent occurrence.  The black community was the main target group, followed by multi-bias, anti-Pakistani, and anti-white.  A difference was noted regarding the age of the suspects in 1999.  According to the description provided by the victims, males who ranged in age from 26-40 committed most of the offences, while in 1998 males from 18-25 were the majority of offenders.  The Hate Crime Unit continued to focus on prevention, pro-active education, and criminal investigations of hate motivated crimes in Toronto in 1999.  A sample of the contribution made to the community by the Toronto Police Service Hate Crime Unit includes hate-bias training for police officers, hate on the Internet training, as well as the respect certificate program.  This program seeks to recognize youth and community members for promoting deeds which positively affect the community. 

Hate Crime Unit: Detective Services Intelligence Support. (2000). 2000 Annual hate/bias crime statistical report. Toronto: Toronto Police Service.

The Toronto Police Hate Crime Unit’s report in 2000 states that there were a total of 204 hate crime offences that year.  This represented a 30% decrease from the 1999 figure of 292.  The occurrences reported by Toronto Transit Commission dropped from 36 reported in 1999 to 20 reported in 2000. The Hate Crime Unit is not able to provide any specific reasons as to why there was a significant decrease in reported offences, however there were many hate/bias demonstrations during the year 2000 which the police attended.  The presence at these demonstrations sent a message that hate activity would not be tolerated and would have helped deter hate crime from occurring.  Assaults were the most frequently reported hate occurrence followed by mischief, threats, willful promotion of hatred, and criminal harassment.  Willful promotion of hatred occurrences dropped by 62% to 20 from 53 reported in the year 1999.  The most targeted group of hate motivated offences is the race category, followed by multi-bias, religion, and sexual orientation.  This remains similar to previous years.  The black community was the most targeted under the race category, followed by Pakistani and white communities.  The age of those responsible for hate crimes described by victims climbed to males over the age of 40.  In 1999 the highest offence rate was males between the ages of 26 and 40.  The Toronto Police Service continued to contribute to the community in 2000 by training police officers, training civilians on diversity, and meeting and consulting with community organizations in community outreach. 

Hate Crime Unit: Detective Services Intelligence Support. (2001). 2001 Annual hate/bias crime statistical report. Toronto: Toronto Police Service.

The 2001 Toronto Police Service Hate Crime Unit’s report showed a significant increase in reported hate crimes.  In 2000 there were 204 reported and in 2001 there were 338, a 66% increase.  This change is caused by the transforming political and religious climate, causing re-ordering of the victim groups which are most affected by hate.  The event which caused this massive increase was the September 11th terrorist attacks on the United States.  The terrorist attacks caused repercussions around the world, Toronto was not immune to the effects.  There were 121 reports directly related to the terrorist attacks.  This is 90% of the total increase in hate crimes from the year 2000.  The victim groups which were most affected by hate crimes after the events of September 11th were the Muslim community.  Regarding the patterns of hate motivated offences, mischief was the most frequent followed by threats, assaults, willful promotion of hatred, and criminal harassment.  The terrorist attacks changed the victim category which is most affected by hate crimes.  In 2001 the category most affected was religion, followed by race, and multi-bias.  In 2000 the most affected was race.  Also to be added, there has been a steady increase in the use of the Internet to communicate hate propaganda, threats, and criminal harassment.  Similar to the year 2000, males over the age of 40 committed the highest number of hate crimes, followed by males 26-40.  The months with the highest hate crime activity were September, October, and November.  This is attributed to the September 11th terrorist attacks.  Finally, the Toronto Police Service Hate Crime Unit continued to work within the community providing assistance, education, and diversity training to police officers and members of the community. 

Hate Crime Unit: Detective Services Intelligence Support. (2002). 2002 Annual hate/bias crime statistical report. Toronto: Toronto Police Service.

The 2002 report by the Toronto Police Service Hate Crime Unit explains that the year 2001 marked many changes around the world.  Toronto experienced many differences in hate crime statistics, this difference relatively returned to normal in 2002.  There were a total of 338 identified hate crime occurrences in 2001, this number decreased to 219 in 2002.  This is a 35% decrease from 2001.  The terrorist attacks on September 11th 2001 were exceptional circumstances and therefore it is important to compare last year’s figure without the 121 occurrences which were directly attributable to the reaction from September 11th.  The 219 occurrences in 2002 are a 1% increase from the 217 non-September 11th occurrences in 2001.  The Toronto Police Service Hate Crime Unit reported that the most noticeable change from 2001 was the decrease in the number of offences committed against the Muslim community in Toronto.  In 2001 there were 57 hate occurrences and in 2002 there were 10.  This number is still relatively high, in 2000 there was just one reported hate crime against a Muslim.  In 2002 the most frequent hate/bias occurrences were mischief, willful promotion of hatred, threats, assaults, and criminal harassment.  The changes in victim categories which resulted from September 11th 2001 returned somewhat to the previous years levels.  The victim category most affected by hate crime was race, followed by religion and multi-bias.  The age group which was accused or suspected of the most hate crimes in 2002 was the age group over 40, followed by males 18-25, and males 26-40.  The Toronto Police Hate Crime Unit continued throughout 2002 to work within the community promoting education and prevention.  One way in which they did this was by creating a program tailored towards youth.  It is an anti-hate curriculum with a “Youth Violence and Gangs” presentation which was to be delivered to school liaison officers in 2002-2003. 

This year was the tenth year that the Toronto Police Hate Crime Unit collected statistics on hate/bias motivated offences.  The following are some observations over the past decade.  The average number of offences is 235, recorded annually.  The lowest number of offences was recorded in 1993, and was 155, with the highest being in 2001, it was 338.  The 219 offences recorded in 2002 were in the middle range of the ten year record. 

Hate Crime Unit: Detective Services Intelligence Support. (2003). 2003 Annual hate/bias crime statistical report. Toronto: Toronto Police Service.

Declining from a spike in previous years, Toronto’s Hate Crime Unit recorded 149 hate crimes in 2003. The 32% decrease was distributed across most victim groups and offence categories. Mischief, willful promotion of hatred, threat, and assault offences were again the most frequently reported hate crimes. These incidents took place primarily in apartment buildings, private dwellings, educational facilities, and businesses. Tensions on university campuses have also forced police presence and intervention in some cases. The Unit reports that the victim categories most affected includes race, religion, and multi-bias, more specifically black, Jewish and gay communities. Perpetrators were often left unidentified, but those who were were identified as male between in three age categories: 18-25, 9-17, or 26-40. Sixteen of the reported incidents resulted in charges, most falling under the willful promotion of hatred. At the time of the report, six of those cases had concluded while four resulted in guilty pleas and one in a guilty verdict. The Hate Crime unit notes the continuing increase in the use of the Internet as a tool to communicate hateful threats and hate propaganda. In terms of community involvement, Toronto’s Hate Crime Unit began a major educational initiative in partnership with C.O. Bick College, developed an enhanced hate/bias training program. Front line officers were trained to recognize and respond to hate and bias activity. In addition, the Unit has developed anti-hate curriculum materials for a “Youth Violence and Gangs” Presentation which was delivered throughout the 2002-2003 school year. The Unit also continues to be involved in a number of other community initiatives alongside with anti-hate organizations.

Hate Crime Unit: Setective Services Intelligence Support. (2004). 2004 Annual hate/bias crime statistical report. Toronto: Toronto Police Service.
In 2004, there was a small increase in the number of hate crimes reported to the Toronto Police Service. There were 163 hate crimes, up from the 149 in 2003. Among the most popular crimes were mischief, assaults, and threats which were mostly likely to take place in apartment buildings, educational facilities, and on public streets. Mischief and threat offences were focused on religion and race while assault was most often based on race and nationality. Hate propaganda offences decreased significantly from 31 incidents in 2003 to 12 in 2004. Victim categories that were most affected by hate crime were religion, race, nationality which Jewish and Blacks victimized most often. Some of the most notable offences committed this year include the vandalization of several Jewish communal institutions in North York. Three young males were arrested and charged with a number of offences, including hate propaganda offences. Another notable series of events included the distribution of anti-Muslim materials at a down town university. A young male was charged with several hate related offences for the incident. Ten individuals were arrested and a number of weapons were seized. Overall, there were 23 persons arrested and 57 charges laid in 2004, an increase from recent years. Of those suspects identified, most were men in the 26-40 or 40 and over age range. This year, hate groups maintained their presence primarily through the internet. Even so, there were a series of events involving neo-nazi/white supremacists and Anti-Racist Action that culminated in a violent confrontation in down town Toronto. Following their analysis of hate crimes, the Hate Crime Unit recognizes the importance of community groups in intervening and counseling victims on the importance of reporting hate occurrences to the police. As such, the Unit provides training and education to both police officers and to the community while meeting and consulting with community organizations.

Hate Crime Unit: Detective Services Intelligence Support. (2005). 2005 Annual hate/bias crime statistical report. Toronto: Toronto Police Service.
The year 2005 marked Toronto’s lowest reported number of hate crimes since the Hate Crime Unit began collecting statistics in 1993. There were 132 incidents reported, representing a 19% reduction from 2004. Although there was a significant decrease, the Unit warns that it has the potential to be somewhat misleading, as hundreds of anti-Semitic pamphlets can be distributed with only a single crime being reported. The most commonly reported crimes were mischief, assault, and threats which occurred primarily in educational facilities, on public streets and in private dwellings. Blacks and Jews were victimized most often. Many of the perpetrators of the incidents remain unknown, but of those known, most were young males. Overall, 26 people were arrested and 50 charges were laid in 2005, which (at the time of the report) had amounted to five guilty verdicts and penalties such as pre-trial custody, periods of probation with conditions, suspended sentences, peace bonds, and sentencing diversions. This year’s report includes a new section which highlights the population composition and the religious affiliations of Torontonians in order to put the number of hate crime incidents into perspective. For example, although Blacks accounted for 67% of the hate crimes committed based on race, they only comprise 8.3% of the Toronto population. In terms of hate groups, there were two major developments in 2005. Former leader of the Heritage Front (one of Canada’s largest and most successful white supremacist organizations) Wolfgang Droege passed away. Also, notorious hate monger, Ernst Zundel was extradited to Germany where there was an outstanding warrant for his arrest related to holocaust denial. The report closes with a brief overview of some of the Unit’s education and community outreach initiatives.

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Khalema, E., Hay, C., & Wannas-Jones, J. The simmering pot boils over: Racist backlash in Edmonton after September 22.  Northern Alberta Reliance on Race Relations. Retrieved June 30, 2001 from the World Wide Web:

This article focuses on a research study by the Northern Alberta Alliance on Race Relations (NAARR) pertaining to the backlash in Edmonton from the September 11, 2001 attacks. NAARR researchers employed a participatory action research approach, through which approximately 100 participants from diverse ethnocultural and religious communities engaged in community consultation processes that allowed them to share experiences and discuss issues of concern after September 11. Based on the findings of this study, the researchers suggest that the terrorist attacks awakened prejudices against racial, ethnic, and religious minorities, particularly Arab-Canadians, African-Canadians, South Asians, Muslim women, and Sikhs.  Participants voiced their concerns about employment discrimination, housing bias, and media representation and commented on how the events of September 11 aggravated these problems. The researchers underscore the effects of the terrorist attacks with reference to police statistics showing the greatest increase in hate crimes occurring immediately after the September 11. The researchers place these findings in a historical context, highlighting a pattern of targeting social groups who share religious, ethnic, and national background with aggressors to Canada. Specifically, the authors draw a parallel with the discriminatory treatment against Arab-Canadians and Muslims today with the treatment of Japanese Canadians following the Pearl Harbour and, more recently, with the discrimination experienced by people of Arab-Canadians and Muslims following the during the Gulf War.  The authors conclude this report with recommendations for increasing intercultural communication and media dialogue and by discussing future research implications regarding systemic racism.

Kurz, M. (2001). The Zundel and Abrams cases. In B’Nai Brith’s 2001 Audit of Antisemitic Incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith.
Kurz briefly reviews The Zundel and Abrams human rights cases which were brought before the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal in 2001. In January 2002, the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal released its decision with regard to Ernst Zundel and his Zundelsite. The Tribunal determined that the Canadian Human Rights Act afforded them jurisdiction over the internet, regardless of the fact that website was based out of California (The website was maintained by Zundel and its materials were distributed in Canada). The Tribunal also determined that the Zundelsite was not a forum for academic debate but rather for hateful and discriminatory materials. The Harry Abrams case against Doug Collins of the Vancouver North Shore News was also brought before the Tribunal for complaints about four articles published by the newspaper. In 1999, the Tribunal upheld the complaints but there has since been an attempt to overturn the decision on free speech grounds. Although Collins passed away the Tribunal delivered its decision stating that the British Columbia Human Rights Code infringes the free speech rights of Mr. Collins but it is saved by section 1 of the Charter. At the time of the article’s writing, Collin’s lawyer planned to judicially review the Tribunal’s decision.

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Lauder, M. False perceptions of an inclusive society: A century of racism and
hate in Canada. Canada: Amnesty International.

This brief article initially recognizes that Canada is often portrayed as a “paragon of virtue in harmonious management of race and ethnic relations,” but proceeds to highlight the racist and hate-filled history of Canadian legislation, government action, and white supremacist groups. Lauder supports this claim of overwhelming hatred with statistics that show an increase in hate crime throughout the 1990s as well as a dramatic increase in anti-Muslim and anti-Arab crimes following the September 11 attacks in 2001. Critics of these statistics claim that the increase in the raw number of incidents is negligible, but Lauder counters by pointing to the deep-seeded impact these crimes have had on the affected communities.

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MacDonald, K.A. (2004).  Justice system’s response: Violence against Aboriginal girls. Justice for Girls.

This document was prepared by the non-profit, advocacy organization, Justice for Girls, which is dedicated to promoting justice, equality, and freedom from violence for teenage girls who live in poverty. As a submission to the Attorney General of British Columbia, the document focuses on the disproportionate representation of Aboriginal girls as victims of violent crimes.  MacDonald suggests that the vulnerability of Aboriginal girls to violence is connected with racism and sexism and therefore constitute hate crimes. Accordingly, MacDonald emphasizes the importance of understanding race, gender, age, as intersecting grounds of discrimination against Aboriginal girls. The argument is also put forth that the justice system has failed to adequately address hate crimes against Aboriginal girls and has therefore contributed to their vulnerability to victimization. In making this criticism, MacDonald identifies the responsibilities of the Crown to advance hate motivation as an aggravating factor pursuant to section 718.2(a)(i) of the Criminal Code, as well as the police to engage in comprehensive training that teaches them how to identify hate-motivated crimes and to understand the context of social inequality, racism and sexism. A number of other criticisms are also directed at the criminal justice system, including its failure to provide protective measures for Aboriginal girls in court, abusive police conduct, insufficient bail conditions against the perpetrators of violence against Aboriginal girls, and inadequate and inaccessible victims’ services. In support of these criticisms, references are made to R. v. Kim, R. v. Tremblay, R. v. Dezwaan, R. v. Punn, and R. v. Ramsay. Ultimately, Justice for Girls appeals to the Attorney General to honour the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women by conducting a systemic review of the justice system’s response to violence against Aboriginal girls in British Columbia.

Matas, D. (2001). Anti-racism after Durban. In B’Nai Brith’s 2001 Audit of antisemtic incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith.

David Matas writes this piece as an attendee of the world meetings in Durban, Africa, consisting of a non-governmental forum and an inter-government World Conference Against Racism. Although the purpose of the conference was to develop strategies to fight racism around the world, it soon turned into a venue to express anti-Semitic attitudes. Matas explains that although many Canadian human rights activists were disturbed by the turn of events, others endorse the concluding documents of the meetings and call for follow-up on the meetings. Matas claims that those who endorse the events of the meetings are overlooking the twenty-one fundamental principles of the fight against racism. Matas outlines each of these principles with a brief explanation of each and how they contribute to the collective fight against racism. For example, Matas calls for solidarity among various anti-racist activists so as to strengthen their numbers: ignoring racism against one group undermines the collective fight against racism. Matas concludes by suggesting that Canadian human rights activists aggressively adhere to these principles in order to “heal the fracture” in the fight against equality.  

McVay, K. (2001). Antisemitic activity on the internet. In B’Nai Brith’s 2001 Audit of Antisemitic Incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith.
Kenneth McVay, Director of the Nizkor Project, examines some of the many issues associated with the regulation of hate on the internet as part of the 2001 Audit of Antisemitic Incidents published by B’Nai Brith. Ten years after hate propaganda first appeared on the internet, McVay reports that anti-Semitic activity continues to rise with a pronounced increase in 2001, coinciding with the escalation of violence in the Middle East. As opposed to the physical incidents of anti-Semitism, a significant proportion of hate activity on the internet can be attributed to right-wing extremist groups. McVay confirms B’Nai Brith’s earlier claims that websites are limited as recruiting tools because they fail to create the sense of community that is required to provide validation and a sense of belonging. Recruiting practices have also been directed towards youth with video games with target ethnic and religious groups, such as the game Ethnic Cleansing. UseNet is also a common forum for recruiting because it offers groups and individuals the opportunity to be interactive. The spread of hate on the internet inspired anti-hate groups such as the Nizkor Project and the Holocaust History Project which attempt to counter hateful sites. It becomes difficult to do so when the scope of the internet is so broad. Furthermore, there is anonymous posting software which allows individuals to post hate messages and hate propaganda without any redress. And even when individuals can be traced, Canadian legislation makes it difficult to prosecute such persons. For example, even though the Canadian Human Rights Commission ruled that the Zundelsite was running contrary to Canadian law, it continues to operate. The Canadian legal system has failed to provide redress for such acts of hatred and although there have been talks about altering the Criminal Code and the Canadian Human Rights Act, they were not confirmed at the time of the writing.

Mock, K. R. Countering Anti-Semitism and Hate in Canada Today:
Legal/Legislative Remedies and Current Realities Racism, Anti-Semitism and Hate in Canada. League for Human Rights of B'nai Brith Canada. Retrieved October 20, 2006 from the World Wide Web:

This article begins with a summary of hate crime history in Canada.  The point is made that Canada is not innocent when it comes to hate and discrimination against those living within its borders.  There is an explanation of the Canadian Constitution, hate speech in Canada is not an issue of free speech, it is against the law.  There is a section describing Julian Roberts’ three areas in which hate crime has been focused internationally.  These three ways are; the definition of hate motivated crimes and the collection of statistics, the creation of new substantive offences, and harsher sentences for those who have committed hate crimes as a sole motive.  The remainder of the article discusses the legal remedies to hate crime, current legislation which is outlined by Roberts, and recent non-legislative alternatives which have been recommended to combat racism, hate, and anti-Semitism in Canada.  Education is stressed to be extremely important.  Children should be taught at an early age about topics such as multiculturalism, anti-racist as well as human rights.  Mock ends discussing that as Canada is still a young country, some may call what is occurring an experiment in multiculturalism.  There continues to be a long way to go to combat the incidents of anti-Semitism, hate, and racism in Canada. 

Mock, K. R. Perspectives on racism: Anti-Semitism in Canada. League
for Human Rights of B’Nai Brith
. Retrieved October 20, 2006 from the World Wide Web:

            The article defines anti-Semitism as the hostility which is directed towards Jewish people because they are Jewish.  It outlines hate propaganda as the portrayal of certain groups as less human or inferior to others, compromising democratic values, and maintaining inequality and oppression.  The history of anti-Semitism in Canada is discussed from a religious perspective to racist perspective.  Religion has been used to distinguish the Jews from other societal members.  They faced isolation and ridicule wherever they went.  Fear and hatred of Jews continued and turned to a racist focus.  Therefore religious and racial attacks against the Jews have been prominent, neither more acceptable then the other.  Mock believes there is no effective way to fight hate and hate mongering, however, Canada should use any means possible to continue to try to fight it.  The remedies to hate are through the law and education.  Programs which incorporate multiculturalism, human rights, and anti-racism in schools are key.  Canada can see from its past how far it has come, though it must be realized that society still has a long way to go.  Legislation and enforcement have aided the fight however community involvement and education alongside it will benefit. 

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Ottawa Police Service Liaison Committee for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Communities. (2002). Heard for the first time: The 10th anniversary incidents booklet of the Ottawa Police Service Committee for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Communities. Ottawa: Ottawa Police Service.

This Incident Report is a documentation of best practices for a community-based response to hate crimes in Ottawa, developed based on the incidents that have been heard at the Ottawa Police Service Liaison Committee for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Communities since 1991. Concern about police inactivity following the murderous attack of Alain Brosseau, a gay man who was thrown to his death off a bridge in Ottawa, and other anti-gay violence in this city led to the creation of this Liaison Committee. Its prevention goal is to make Ottawa safe for individuals whose sexual orientation is not that of the majority. The Liaison Committee takes an action-oriented, problem-solving approach to hate crime based on sexual orientation that addresses needs as they are identified by the community. Their work is presented within the context of heterosexism, societal homophobia and transphobia, exposing the root causes of crime motivated by hate, unsafe school environments for queer youth, harassment, and inadequate services for victims and perpetrators of same-sex and transgender partner abuse. Positive outcomes of the work of the Liaison Committee are said to be an increase in reporting of hate crimes and same-sex partner abuse; increased visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) realities in police service policies, procedures and training; informed and sensitive responses to members of the LGBT communities through increased officer numbers; and police participation in LGBT community events. The report affirms that a major part of the Liaison Committee’s success can be attributed to the willingness of the Police Service to acknowledge its past responses to hate motivated crime based on sexual orientation as insufficient and to work openly with the LGBT community on their identified concerns. As a result of the work of the Liaison Committee, the Ottawa Police Service has a greater understanding of the hate-motivation dynamic, the impact of hate crimes on victims, and the value of early intervention.

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Prutsch, M. (1996). The Zundel affair. Canada: The Nizkor Project.  

The Nikzor Project chronicles the life of Ernst Zundel and his involvement in the mass distribution of anti-Semitic hate propaganda. The article can be likened to a biography which begins in Germany in 1939 when Zundel was born. It describes Zundel’s move to Canada in 1958, where he began his quest to disprove the Holocaust after meeting Adrien Arcand, “Canada’s quintessential Nazi.” His relationship with Arcand connected him with anti-Semites in Canada, the United States, and Europe which propelled the development of a world-wide subscription to his anti-Jewish publications. Initially, Zundel lived a double life, producing Jewish hate propaganda under an alias, but eventually devoted his entire being to this cause. Zundel began to send pamphlets to government officials, the media, libraries and schools in Canada, the United States, Australia, Germany, and the Middle East. He extended his following through subscriptions and brought in an estimated $60,000 – $100,000 a year. After concerns were raised by the Jewish community in Ontario, Sabine Citron of the Canadian Holocaust Remembrance Association laid charges against him under the false news section of the Criminal Code. Zundel was found guilty by a jury of his peers and was sentenced to fifteen months in jail. Upon appeal to the Ontario Court of Appeal, he was ordered a new trial due to fundamental errors committed during his initial trial. During his second trial, Zundel was found guilty once again and sentenced to nine months in prison. His second appeal was upheld, and his final appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada was precedent setting. The Supreme Court ruled that the false news statute under which Zundel was charged was unconstitutional (no ruling was made on his prior two convictions). The article concludes by examining Zundel’s impact on anti-Semitism both in Canada and world-wide, suggesting that his connections and clientele inspired Neo-Nazis internationally.

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Scheinberg, S. (2001). The new anti-Semitism: The transformation of hate. In B’Nai Brith’s 2001 Audit of Antisemitic Incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith.
Schienberg, a professor at Concordia University and a National Chair for the League for Human Rights, analyzes the emergence of what he terms “the new anti-Semitism.” Schienberg explains that following World War II, prominent anti-Semitism historians witnessed a decline in the strength of anti-Semitism and in the early 1990s predicted this decline would continue well into the future. Unfortunately, in the year 2000, an ongoing string of anti-Semitism has disproved this theory. Schieberg attributes the new wave of anti-Semitic violence to four major complementary elements. The first is the rise of anti-Semitism and hate propaganda in the Arab and Muslim communities (although to a smaller extent in the Muslim community). There has also been a rise in Arab hate crimes against Jews which is related to the growing number of Arab people living outside Arab states, spreading their hateful messages. The third contributing factor to the rise in anti-Semitism is the ongoing campaign to illegitimate Israel as a Jewish state. Finally the reemergence of Jewish stereotypes have resulted from the combined effects of the factors listed above. The Arab and Jewish battle emanates primarily from Europe, but B’Nai Brith continues to emphasize its effects in Canada and all over the world.

Silber, M. (2001). Human rights and discriminatory publications. Vancouver: Canadian Jewish Congress, Pacific Region.

This index consists of resource materials stemming from the Human Rights Tribunal Hearing of May 1997 in the case of Canadian Jewish Congress vs. Doug Collins and the North Shore News Ltd. In this groundbreaking case, Doug Collins, a member of the media, was forced to defend his published remarks in front of a human rights tribunal. The issue to be decided was whether an article written by Collins, entitled “Hollywood Propaganda,” contravened Section 7(1) of the British Columbia Human Rights Code by exposing an identifiable group, in this case Jews, to contempt and hatred. Collin’s argued for the constitutional invalidity of Section 7(1) of the B.C Human Rights Code. The tribunal judge dismissed the case. Two years later, the case was brought again under a new complainant, Harry Abrams. The tribunal judge ruled in Abrams favor. The documents and materials accumulated by the Canadian Jewish Congress in its case against Doug Collins and the North Shore Free Press make up this index. Provided are summaries of important legal submissions, hallmark Canadian cases, selected articles, media documents and bibliographies. Chapter one summarizes recent Canadian cases involving free speech and challenges to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Chapter two presents materials pertaining to the constitutionality of Section 7 of the B.C. Human Rights Code. Chapter three provides examples of incendiary speech, while chapter four offers expert opinions on the nature and repercussions of such speech. Chapter five outlines issues of free speech and censorship in North America. Chapter six details the arguments of those opposed to Section 7 of the B.C Human Rights Code. Finally, arguments in support of Section 7 forms the content of chapter seven.

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Vassal, A., Fisher, J., Jurgens, R., & Hughes, R. (1997). Gay and lesbian legal issues and HIV/AIDS: A discussion paper. Montreal: Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network & Canadian AIDS Society.

This discussion paper documents the historical and persistent patterns of discrimination and persecution that gay men and lesbians have suffered, and how the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been accompanied by an epidemic of stigma and discrimination against those affected by this disease. The authors also document the discrimination against gay men and lesbians existent in Canadian law. In addition, the effect of discrimination on the lives of gay men and lesbians, as well as the effect of discrimination on efforts to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and to care for those living with this disease are shown. The authors provide a variety of recommendations for action that will enable Canada to decrease discrimination against gay men and lesbians and improve HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts. In a section dedicated to hate crime, described by the authors as the most extreme manifestation of homophobia and AIDSphobia, the shockingly high levels of verbal harassment and anti-gay/lesbian violence that gay men and lesbians in Canada are subject to is discussed. In reference to the impact of homophobic violence, the authors state that such public expressions of hatred reinforce the belief held by many Canadians that violence against gay men and lesbians is acceptable. For gay men and lesbians, hate motivated crimes based on sexual orientation contribute to the difficulties they experience in overcoming the stereotypes and prejudices they face. The authors also provide an overview of Canadian law relative to hate crime against sexual minorities. It is argued that many problems exist in both the content and application of Canadian law including, (1) section 159 of the Criminal Code discriminates on the basis of sexual orientation; (2) other Criminal Code provisions are applied disproportionately against gay men and lesbians; (3) in criminal cases, homosexual advances are sometimes treated as provocation, excusing the acts of the assailant and justifying a lighter sentence; (4) hate crimes against gay men and lesbians are pervasive; and (5) under the Criminal Code, it is not illegal to promote the genocide of gay men, lesbians and those with HIV/AIDS. The authors provide four recommendations to address the above noted problems: (1) Section 159 of the Criminal Code should be revised to align it with the Charter; (2) police education programs should address discriminatory attitudes among officers that lead to unequal application of the law; (3) legislation should be introduced to ensure that discriminatory attitudes cannot be used in defence of homophobic violence; and (4) promoting genocide on the basis of sexual orientation should be made illegal. 

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Winn, C. (2001). Vaccinating against racism and bigotry. In B’Nai Brith’s 2001 Audit of Antisemitic incidents. Canada: B’Nai Brith.

In his research, Winn found that Canadians are no more racist today than they were a generation ago. In fact, Winn discovered evidence of inter-group acceptance, empathy and understanding among those surveyed. However, he raises concerns about hate in Canada. To gauge inter-group relations, Winn asked respondents whether or not they thought certain ethnic or religious groups had too much power or too little power. A response which indicated a group had too much power was considered antagonistic while those who thought groups had too little power were considered empathetic. Winn deduced that those who believed that Jews were responsible for the Holocaust often felt they had too much power. But on a positive note, Winn acknowledges that Canadians are more knowledgeable about the Holocaust and the majority do not blame its victims. There is also evidence that anti-Asian sentiments are on the rise. This is the only group to experience a rise in antagonism. Winn offers a potential explanation, citing problems of social integration which predate 9/11. Winn also discovers another interesting fact; both now and in the past, Quebecers seem to be more antagonistic towards African-Canadians, Italians, and Jewish people than the general Canadian population. Interestingly, educated Canadians are more likely to believe that certain ethic or religious groups have more power than those who are less educated (less than highschool). On the opposite end of the spectrum, youth and women are less likely to feel that any group has too much power.

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